A federal reservation of Hupa Indians in northeast Humboldt County, about 64 miles east of Eureka. This forested country is located along the Trinity River, and over three-quarters of the reservation is designated as commercial timberland. The total area is 85,446 acres, or about 144 square miles. It has a population of 2,633. The reservation's seven districts (Campbell, Hostler-Matilton, Agency, Soctish-Chenone, Mesket, Norton, and Bald Hill) correspond with traditional Hupa villages. At the heart of the Hoopa Valley is the ancient village of Takimildin, which is "the center of the world" for the Hupa people. The Brush Dance, the White Deerskin Dance, and the Jump Dance are performed yearly. See also: Hupa Indians
A tribe who traditionally occupied lands in the far northwestern corner of California, along the lower Trinity River and in the Hoopa Valley. Their self-designation was Natinook-wa, "People of the Place Where the Trails Return." Hupa is from the Yurok language for the Hoopa Valley. The Hupa were culturally and linguistically related to three neighboring tribes: the Chilula and Whilkut who lived mainly to their east; and the South Fork Hupa (Tsnungwe) who lived to the south. They are also culturally related to the Yurok and the Karuk to the north. Their language belongs to the Athabascan language family. In the early 19th century, there were around 1,000 Hupa in and near the Hoopa Valley. Their diet and way of life centered around the semiannual king salmon runs that occur on the Trinity River. This river flows through the Hoopa Valley Reservation, created in 1864, which is in the heart of their traditional territory. Being fairly isolated, the Hupa had little contact with non-natives until the mid-19th century. Over 2,600 Indians live on this reservation. Today, the tribe's economy centers around the timber industry. See: Hoopa Valley Reservation
A tribe from the far northwestern portion of California, inland along the middle section of the Klamath River. Karuk means "upstream," as opposed to the word for their neighbors, Yurok, which means "downstream." Culturally, the Karuk were very similar to the neighboring Yurok and Hupa. Their language is one of the Hokan language family. They traditionally relied on the salmon runs that occur twice each year, as well as on gathering foods. Karuk population in the 18th century is estimated to have been around 1,500. Today, the Karuk are one of the largest tribes in California, with approximately 4,800 members, although the tribe has a small land base. Today, Karuk Indians live in the Orleans district in Humboldt County, the Happy Camp district, the Yreka district, along the Forks of the Salmon region in Siskiyou County, and in southern Oregon.
About 200-300 Kawaiisu descendents live in their traditional areas in Kern County, including five fluent speakers of their language between the ages of 60 and 95 years of age. Classes in their language of Tehachapi are being taught today. This language is of the Southern Numic branch of the Uto-Aztecan language family. Their homelands are in the foothills between the Mohave Desert and the San Joaquin Valley where they have lived for more than 2,000 years. This area is in the Tehachapi and Piute mountain areas of northern California. The Kawaiisu were great basket makers, but the last one passed away in the 1980s. For more information, see: The Kawaiisu Tribe. Some people of Kawaiisu descent also live on the Tule River Reservation.
These people traditionally lived in southern California in present-day Kern County, around the Bakersfield area. They lived in semi-permanent villages in the classic California foothills fashion. During the 19th century, they Kitanemuk lived in the Tejon Ranch Indian community, which never became a reservation. Today, many people of Kitanemuk descent live near Tejon Ranch, but only one family still lives on the ranch. Some people of Kitanemuk descent live on the Tule River Reservation, as well as on private land near their homeland. Traditionally, their food consisted of acorns and other vegetables, and was supplemented with small-game hunting. Their language belongs to the Uto-Aztecan family.
Also called the Diegueño, or Tipai-Ipai, these Indians' traditional lands are what are now San Diego County and northern Baja California. The Kumeyaay land extended from 50 to 75 miles both north and south of the present Mexican border, as well as from the California coast almost to the Colorado River. Theirs is a Hokan language of the Yuman branch. They are divided also by two dialects: Ipai (the northern dialectical form) and Tipai (the southern dialectical form). They depended on a variety of foods, from marine resources along the coast to vegetable foods such as acorns, to dry farming. In the 18th century, there were around 50 bands of Kumeyaay. The Mission San Diego was the first Spanish mission in California, established in San Diego in 1769 to convert the Kumeyaay, among other goals. The Spanish called them Diegueños because they lived near the San Diego river. In the late 18th century there were between 3,000 and 9,000 Tipai-Ipai, or Kumeyaay/Diegueño/Kamia. Before 1870, the southern and interior Kumeyaay largely avoided repression by the Mission San Diego, while the northern and coastal Kumeyaay had early contact with the missions, and fell under Spanish domination. After 1870, American immigrants moved into the area, taking the Kumeyaay land. Until 1910, the Kumeyaay largely starved on inadequate reservations or found menial labor on area ranches or in local homes. Today, there are around 1,200 Kumeyaay living on their reservations of Barona, Campo, Inaja-Cosmit, La Posta, Manzanita, Mesa Grande, San Pasqual, Santa Ysabel, Sycuan, Viejas (Baron Long), and the Jamul Indian Village. Their reservations of Capitan Grande and Cuyapaipe are unoccupied. Another 2,000 more live off-reservation. Various spellings of Kumeyaay may be found in older documents, such as Kumei, or Cumeyaay.
By the end of the 19th century, most Indian peoples in California had suffered devastating losses to their numbers through diseases, military battles, poverty, and cultural disruption. They had been forcibly removed from their traditional lands, and their populations were depleted. Many Indian groups were left without a permanent land base. A Congressional act called for an investigation, led by C. E. Kelsey, on the status of California's "landless" Indians at the beginning of the 20th century. This led to the establishment of many reservations and rancherias for California's "landless" Indians.
These people traditionally occupied land extending approximately 50 miles along the southern California coastline, including the northern part of San Diego County, and lands south of Los Angeles. Historically, the Luiseño occupied the territory south of Mt. San Jacinto extending to the Pacific coast. Their lands extended inland for about 30 miles, north of the Kumeyaay lands. The Spanish named them after the Mission San Luis Rey, and the San Luis Rey River. The Luiseño were associated with the Mission San Juan Capistrano, also, and were often referred to as Juaneño Indians. Both the Luiseño and Juaneño are included among the groups of so-called Mission Indians. The Luiseño and Juaneño languages belong to the Takic branch of the Uto-Aztecan language family. Many people still speak Luiseño. Their foods were marine resources along the coast and vegetables gathered in the foothills of the Coast Range to the east. They lived in semi-permanent villages, with some seasonal movement. The Luiseño were organized into roughly 50 patrilineal clan tribelets, each with an autonomous, semi-permanent village led by a hereditary chief. Each village group also had its own food resource area. In the late 18th century, there were approximated 10,000 Luiseños. The 1990 population of Luiseños on their reservations stood at 1,795. Today, Luiseño people live on the La Jolla, Pala, Pechanga, Pauma, Rincon, Soboba, and Twentynine Palms reservations. They are also called the Luiseño Band of Mission Indians.