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How to Cite Your Sources

Overview of APA Citations

In-text citations provide brief information about a source and refer the reader to the full citation in the reference list.

Example of in-text narrative citation:
Noble (2018) describes the biases inherent in search algorithms.
Example of in-text parenthetical citation:
Many digital media scholars have been investigating how commercial search algorithms contain inherent biases (Noble, 2018).
In-text citations with a direct quotation should include a page number. Example:
It has become clear that "search results play a powerful role in providing fact and authority" (Noble, 2018, p.36).

For more information about in-text citations, check out these guides from the APA website:

Reference list citations provide all the information required about the source and correspond to the in-text citation.
Example of citation in reference list:
Noble, S. U. (2018). Algorithms of oppression: How search engines reinforce racism. New York University Press.

Common Reference Examples

For more examples of how to cite different type of sources (e.g. podcasts, tweets, press releases, and more), check out this guide from the APA website: APA Common Reference Examples

Journal Article

Edwards, A. A., Steacy, L. M., Siegelman, N., Rigobon, V. M., Kearns, D. M., Rueckl, J. G., & Compton, D. L. (2022). Unpacking the unique relationship between set for variability and word reading development: Examining word- and child-level predictors of performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 114(6), 1242–1256.

Online Magazine Article

Thomson, J. (2022, September 8). Massive, strange white structures appear on Utah’s Great Salt Lake. Newsweek.

Online Newspaper Article

Roberts, S. (2020, April 9). Early string ties us to Neanderthals. The New York Times.

Authored Book

Kaufman, K. A., Glass, C. R., & Pineau, T. R. (2018). Mindful sport performance enhancement: Mental training for athletes and coaches. American Psychological Association.

Edited Book Chapter 

Zeleke, W. A., Hughes, T. L., & Drozda, N. (2020). Home–school collaboration to promote mind– body health. In C. Maykel & M. A. Bray (Eds.), Promoting mind–body health in schools: Interventions for mental health professionals (pp. 11–26). American Psychological Association.


Click on the image for more details about citation formatting 

APA Journal citation

Featured Resources

Understanding APA Citations 7th edition tutorial

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